Who Created God?

Ayatollah Nasir Makarem Shirazi

Ayatollah Nasir Makarem Shirazi

Written by Ayatollah Nasir Makarem Shirazi

Question:

Who created God? This is a strange question, but the well-known English philosopher Bertrand Russell has stated in one of his books, “During my youth, I believed in God and thought that the proof ’cause of all causes’ was the best evidence for it. All that I see in the world has a cause, and if we follow the chain of causes, ultimately we will reach the first cause, and this first cause is who we call God. But later, I completely turned away from this belief, because I thought if everything has a cause and creator, then God must also have a cause and creator.”

Answer:

It happens that this is one of the most famous and elementary objections of the materialists. More clearly, they say, “If God created everything, then who created God?” It is not clear to us how long Russell encountered this objection, but since this question occurs to many youths, it must be accurately studied.

There are several fundamental points that exist here, and by paying attention to them, the answer to this objection will become clear:

First, if we accept the materialist belief and also claim what Russell has claimed, will we be free from this objection? Clearly not, because the materialists also believe in the principle of causality. They consider everything in the natural world to be the effect of another thing. Therefore, we can ask them the same question about matter. If everything is the effect of matter, then what is matter the effect of?

Based on this, and keeping in mind that the chain of cause and effect cannot go on forever, all the philosophers of the world, including materialist and religious philosophers, believe in an eternal being, a being that always existed. However, the materialists say that the eternal being of the universe is matter or the combination of matter and energy. And theists say the central source is God. In this manner, it becomes clear that Russell has no choice but to believe in an eternal being, even if it is matter.

Secondly, can this eternal being have a cause? Certainly not. Why? Because an eternal being always existed, and a thing that always existed does not need a cause. Only that being is in need of a cause which did not exist at one time and then came to existence. Ponder over this.

As a result, everyone is in agreement about the existence of an eternal source. And the firm proofs for the invalidity of an infinite series of cause and effect has obliged all philosophers to admit that there is an eternal origin. Therefore, contrary to what Russell has imagined, the disagreement among theist and materialist philosophers isn’t that one accepts the cause of all causes and the other does not. Rather, both equally believe in the first cause and cause of all causes.

So where is the disagreement then? It must clearly be stated that the only difference is that theists believe that the first cause has knowledge and willpower, and they name him God. But the materialists imagine it to be without knowledge and willpower, and they name it matter.

Now how did a matter so clear remain unknown to Russell? We can only say that he was an expert in mathematics, natural sciences, and social science, not in primary philosophy, such as recognition of existence and its source and effects.

From what was stated, we also come to the conclusion that religious philosophers do not only use the proof of “cause of all causes” to prove the existence of God, because this only proves the existence of a primary cause. In other words, it proves the existence of an eternal being in whom the materialists also believe. The important issue for the religious philosophers after proving the existence of the first cause is to prove that He has endless knowledge. This matter can easily be proved by studying the order of creation, its secret wonders, and the calculated laws which govern over the skies, Earth, and various living beings. Ponder over this.

This was the first necessary discussion in answer to this objection. The other necessary matter is that this objection is based on the belief that every being is in need of a cause and creator. This law is not universal and is only true in those cases where a thing previously did not exist and later came to existence. Ponder over this.

To shed further light on this point, we say that there are beings that exist now which previously did not exist, such as the solar system and living beings, both plants and animals. Their history shows that their existence is not eternal. Based on their differences, they did not exist a few million or a few billion years ago, and then they came into existence. Evidently, for the coming about of such beings, a cause or causes are necessary. Clearly, the separation of the Earth from the sun, based on Laplace’s hypothesis and others formed after him, was due to particular causes, whether we are completely aware of them or not. Similarly, the coming about of the first sprout of plant life, then animal, and then human life are all indebted to causes. Therefore, scientists are continuously striving to find these causes. If their existence was not due to causes, there is no reason for them to come about a million or billion years ago. Why didn’t they come about in twice as much time or half as much? The selection of these particular times is the best proof for the fact that the conditions and causes of their coming into being were only certain at those times.

But if a being is eternal, whether we call that eternal being God or matter, it does not need any causes. It does not need a creator or a god, because there is no history of His coming about, and so that the place of cause and creator is empty in this history. The existence of an eternal thing takes rise from its essence, not from outside its essence so that it will be in need of a creator. Think over this.

You, I, the Earth, the sky, the solar system, and so forth are in need of a creator, because our existence is not eternal and not from within ourselves. The first cause and cause of all causes is not such, because His existence is from His self.

A Clear Example

Philosophers have mentioned examples to explain this philosophical statement and make it more understandable. For instance, they say, “When we look inside our work room or living room, we see that it is illuminated.” We ask ourselves, is the illumination from the room itself?

Then we immediately say no, because if the illumination came about from the room itself, the room would never get dark. But sometimes it is illuminated, and sometimes it is dark. Therefore, its illumination is not from itself. And we quickly come to the conclusion that the brightness of our room or house is from the light particles that shine in it.

Then we immediately ask ourselves: where does the brightness of light particles come from?

With a little thought, we come to the conclusion that the brightness of a light particle is of itself and comes about from within its essence. Light particles have not borrowed their property of brightness. Nowhere in the world can you find light particles that are dark and then take brightness from something else. No matter where light particles are, they are bright. The brightness is a part of their essence, and it is not borrowed. It is perhaps possible for light particles to be destroyed, but it is not possible for them to exist but be dark. Contemplate this.

Therefore, if someone says that the brightness of every area and locale in the world is an effect of light, and then asks where the brightness of light is from, we immediately say that the brightness of light is a part of its essence. Similarly, when it is said the existence of everything is God’s, and then someone wonders whose the existence of God is, we immediately answer it is His own and from within His essence.


The author of over a hundred books and articles on religious and social topics, including a commentary on the Holy Qur’an, Ayatollah Nasir Makarem Shirazi is followed as a Religious Authority by millions of Shias around the world today. He lives and teaches in the holy city of Qom, Iran.

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Prophetic Unity

If one looks with precision into the life of the Prophet of Islam (s) they will see that love and unity played extremely important roles in his message and in the spread of the Islam.

 Allah introduced the Noble Prophet (s) as the Prophet of Mercy and Prophet Muhammad’s (s) life is full of live for Allah and His servants.

 

The author of this article tries to point to the heights of this unity and this mercy. The article is as follows:

The Prophet’s (s) entrance into Medina was coupled by the pacts made with various groups. These pacts can be considered as the clearest pieces of evidence of Islamic love and unity in the society and that time.

 The general pact with the people of Medina is one of the most important pacts. It was the first pact that was made between the Prophet of Islam (s) and the tribes that existed in Yathrib at that time. Some of what is written on it is the first written fundamental laws of the world.

 

This was the best opportunity to bring about religious unity because unity amongst the fighting tribes would ensure the social rights of the Jews and the Muslim immigrants as well. From another angel, these pacts were the prelude to the establishment of a unified political theme and government.

 

Full article: www.insight-info.com

 

Imam Khomeini’s Political Thought

Cultural Arrogance and Ethnic Pride

The followers of Prophet Musa (peace be upon him), like the followers of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his progeny), were Divinely-guided Muslims. Today, however, Prophet Musa’s followers aren’t known as Muslims. Instead, they’re remembered exclusively by their clan affiliation: the Children of Israel or, by the name of their clan’s politically dominant tribe, Jews. God guided the Children of Israel through the efforts of Prophet Moses and The Torah. Most followers of Moses, however, had no physical access to the Torah. It was locked up and guarded in the Ark of the Covenant. Only the high priests had access.

We Muslims of the Muhammadan dispensation of Islam are privileged. We have infallible Divine Guidance sitting on our bookshelves. Nearly every Muslim has key parts of the Qur’an locked in his/her memory, and whoever can remember it can guard the entire Holy Scroll in his breast’s treasure chest (74:55). Yet, like our ancient religious brethren, too many of us still manage to do the exact opposite of what’s best for us. We’re even known by our ethnocentric identities. We’re Arabs. We’re Persians. We’re Pakistanis. We’re African-Americans. We’re known by who we are, not what we are. We’re just like the Muslims of old, who still to this day are known as either Israelis or Jews, instead of Muslims.

Why? Because we tend to fear not and forget Allah (87:9) and de-prioritize God’s guidance in preference to the gadgetry of the world (2:102). Thus, we tend to allow our lower nature to be influenced by the Nefarious Stoned Satan, who’s dedicated to our ultimate ruin. This ancient, alien adversary isn’t alone in his mission. Shaitan is constantly trying to recruit others to the Dark Side, spreading ignorance, negligence, disobedience, and oppression. The methods have not changed throughout the ages. He invents ways to incite, seduce, beguile, and corrupt. Then he uses these inventions to turn what is closest to us into his trusted and charismatic agent provocateur, which then infiltrates into our very core, the most susceptible aspect of our humanity, the easily inflated human ego. Thus, many believe that it’s more important to be who our parents were than it is to be what our Prophet was. So we adopt our parent’s errors rather than our Prophet’s righteousness. It is our ego’s fierce fiery sense of exaggerated self-worth that stinks to high heaven and can anger God to no end.

Call it arrogance, pride, racial pride, family pride, ethnic pride, national pride, cultural pride. That accursed sin of pride: that’s what got our enemy into a hell of a lot of trouble, and that’s the weapon he uses to take us with him. All that egotistical fool had to do was bow towards a fellow creature. The command to bow was given by the recognizable voice of God. He’d been okay if he’d obeyed. But he didn’t. He thought so highly of himself that he didn’t fear His Creator. He waxed proud in his opinion of himself, rebelled, then waned in God’s Grace, and suffered an irreparable loss of spiritual face. He became morally bankrupted. No spiritual currency, condemned without hope of Allah’s Mercy, destined to dwell forever in hell, a bad place with bad feelings and even worse smell, without vision of God’s Merciful Ever Presence, cursed to his essence, existing only on hatred for those born to humanity, ultimate peace lost to eternal insanity.

Full article: www.insight-info.com

Challenging Ignorance on Islam

I have faith in the American people – I know they can come out of this ignorance and know Islam for what it really is.

 

crescent star

 

 

* “We should invade [Muslim] countries, kill their leaders and convert them to Christianity.”
Columnist Ann Coulter,
National Review Online, Sept. 13, 2001

* “Just turn [the sheriff] loose and have him arrest every Muslim that crosses the state line.”
Rep. C. Saxby Chambliss (R-GA),
chairman of the House Subcommittee on Terrorism and Homeland security and Senate candidate, to Georgia law officers, November 2001

* “Islam is a religion in which God requires you to send your son to die for him. Christianity is a faith where God sent his Son to die for you.”
Attorney General John Ashcroft,
interview on Cal Thomas radio, November 2001

* “(Islam) is a very evil and wicked religion wicked, violent and not of the same god (as Christianity).”
Rev. Franklin Graham, head of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, November 2001.

* “Islam is Evil,Christ is King.”
Allegedly written in marker by law enforcement agents on a Muslim prayer calendar in the home of a Muslim being investigated by police in Dearborn, Michigan, July 2002.
___________________

People with power and influence in the U.S. have been saying some very stupid things about Islam and about Muslims since September 11.

Some of it is rooted in conscious malice, and ethnic prejudice that spills over into religious bigotry. But some is rooted in sheer historical and geographical ignorance. This is a country, after all, in which only a small minority of high school students can readily locate Afghanistan on the map, or are aware that Iranians and Pakistanis are not Arabs. As an educator, in Asian Studies, at a fairly elite university, I am painfully aware of this ignorance. But I realize it serves a purpose. It is highly useful to a power
structure that banks on knee-jerk popular support whenever it embarks on a new military venture, at some far-off venue, on false pretexts immediately discernable to the better educated, but lost on the
general public.

The generally malleable mainstream press takes care of the rest.

When offered the honor of becoming President of Israel, Albert Einstien replied, “No thanks, I’d rather win the Nobel Peace prize, I have no interest in Israel.”

“Suppose you were an idiot. And suppose you were a member of Congress. But I repeat myself.”
— Mark Twain

“Our enemies are innovative and resourceful, and so are we. They never stop thinking about new ways to harm our country and our people, and neither do we.”
–George W. Bush

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